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Living Without Electricity - watersheds
The Cambrian Explosion’s iconic animal was the . As a child, I read every paleontology text in my elementary school’s library, and I have fond memories of imagining trilobite lives. Was there love among the trilobites? Among the protists? The bacteria? To a scientist, those questions might be unanswerable and even meaningless, but a mystic might pursue them. I will not wax too mystically in this essay (I do it ), but that may well be the big question of life on Earth and . The nature of consciousness and love in the Cambrian, or the lack thereof, as much as it may always be a mystery, does not invalidate life’s arc through the evolutionary process; it only challenges materialism.
What I have yet to see human-agency skeptics discuss is that of multi-metric-ton herbivores and their attendant predators appeared hundreds of millions of years ago, and attaining large size was both an offensive and defensive strategy that goes back to the "arms wars" of the Cambrian Explosion. When mass extinction events happened, the race began anew. rose to prominence along with . When the wiped out those dinosaur guilds, it was not long before large herbivores began to reappear, with mammals in those niches. Within 25 million years of the bolide event, mammals reached their maximum size and , until humans arrived. Although species emerged and went extinct, just as they had for the entire eon of complex life, that guild stayed relatively constant in size. When humans arrived, . The five-to-seven ton herbivores and their predators vanished and were replaced by guilds a tiny fraction of their size. Car-sized inhabited a niche that once resided in, and soon after humans arrived, only dog-sized armadillos remained.
Life without electricity essay - KATA Avanture
When the total continental land mass was small or combined into a supercontinent, there was no land to divert that diffusion of warm water toward the poles, which results in currents. During those times, the global ocean became one big, calm lake, with no currents of significance. Those oceans are called today, and they would have been anoxic; the oxygenated surface waters would not have been drawn by currents to the ocean floor, and the oceans were certainly anoxic before the GOE. The interplay of those can be incredibly complex and lead to the multitude of hypotheses posited to explain those ancient events, but a leading hypothesis today is that a combination of factors, including supercontinents, variations in volcanic output, Canfield Oceans, and ice ages prevented life from gaining ecosystem dominance until the waning of the second Snowball Earth event, which was the greatest series of glaciations that Earth has yet experienced. It is known today as the , which ended about 635 mya. The study of the Cryogenian Period, which is the subject of , resulted in the term “.”
Many people are familiar with the term , which was all of today’s continents merged into a supercontinent. Pangaea formed about 300 mya, but it was not the only supercontinent; it was just the only one existing during the eon of complex life. One called may have existed one bya and did not break up until 750 mya (and reformed into another supercontinent, , 600 mya, which did not break up until 550 mya), and there is a hypothesized earlier one called that existed two bya. There is also a hypothesis that all continental mass was contained in one supercontinent that lasted from . The continental land masses of two bya may have been only about 60% the size of today’s. Supercontinents .
Essay on my life without electricity
With by private interests, often with governmental assistance, mainstream science is largely irrelevant regarding many important issues that could theoretically be within its purview. Paradoxically, scientists can also fall for fashionable theories and get on bandwagons. Scientific practice is subject to human foibles, just as all human endeavors are. There can be self-reinforcing bias in that the prevailing hypotheses can determine what facts are adduced, and potential facts thus escape inquiry, particularly when entire lines of inquiry are forbidden by organized suppression and the excesses of the national security state, as well as the indoctrination that scientists are subject to, as all people are.
In the 1990s, I found the dating issue enthralling and saw it assailed by fringe theorists and by . A couple of decades later, I reached the understanding that, like all sciences, dating has its limitations and the enthusiasm for a new technique can become a little too exuberant, but dating techniques and technologies have greatly improved in my lifetime. Dating the , and using 100,000-year increments to place the dates, may seem a conceit, thinking that scientists can place that event with that precision, but over the years my doubts have diminished. When and can be tested, and the findings support not only Earth’s age previously determined by myriad methods, but also support the prevailing theories for the solar system’s and Moon’s formation, call me impressed. Controversies will persist over various finds and methods used, and scientific fraud certainly occurs, but taken as a whole, those converging lines of independently tested evidence make it increasingly unlikely that the entire enterprise is a mass farce, delusion, or even a conspiracy, as many from the fringes continue to argue. There is still a , and it is not a parody. I have looked into fringe claims for many years and few of them have proven valid; even if many were, their potential importance to the human journey was often minor to trifling. As the story that this essay tells comes closer to today’s humanity, orthodox controversies become more heated and fringe claims proliferate.
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Life without electricity essay - Juliesrentals
The first tree forests formed in the late Devonian, and bark is the great innovation that led to forming the Carboniferous’s vast coal deposits. Compared to modern trees, Carboniferous trees seemed to go overboard on bark, at least partly to discourage arthropods. Today’s trees generally contain at least four times as much wood as bark. Those early trees had about . trees dominated the Carboniferous rainforest and could grow 30 meters tall. Because it took more than a hundred million years for life to learn to break down lignin, that early lignin did not degrade via biological processes. The early Carboniferous was warm, even with a small ice cap at the South Pole, and Earth’s first rainforests appeared in the late Devonian and again proliferated in the Carboniferous. The Carboniferous lasted from about 360 mya to 300 mya and was the Golden Age of Amphibians, as the rainforest was largely global in extent and swamps abounded. Amphibians were the Carboniferous’s apex predators on land, and some reached crocodile size and acted like them.
My life without electricity essay - Wellingtons of Calgary
While oxygen level changes of the model show early fluctuations that the model does not, both models agree on a huge rise in oxygen levels in the late Devonian and Carboniferous, in tandem with collapsing carbon dioxide levels. There is also virtually universal agreement that that situation is due to rainforest development. Rainforests dominated the Carboniferous Period. If the Devonian could be considered terrestrial life’s , then the Carboniferous was its . In the Devonian, plants developed vascular systems, photosynthetic foliage, seeds, roots, and bark, and true forests first appeared. Those basics remain unchanged to this day, but in the Carboniferous there was great diversification within those body plans, and Carboniferous plants formed the foundation for the first complex land-based ecosystems. Ever since the episodes, there has , and the that have prominently shaped Earth’s eon of complex life probably always began with ice sheets at the South Pole, and the current ice age arguably is the only partial exception, but today’s cold period really began about 35 mya, .
Life without electricity essay | Brian Gilbert Associates
Amniotes are primarily classified by . The earliest reptiles may have had skulls like amphibians, with . In some early reptiles, a hole developed behind the eye, probably for attaching jaw muscles, and animals with such skulls are called ; mammals evolved from that line, and are essentially the . Near the Carboniferous’s end at about 300 mya, skulls with two holes behind the eye developed, probably for anchoring more powerful jaw muscles. Animals with those skulls are called , and one line of diapsid descendants eventually ruled Earth as dinosaurs. Dinosaurs had the greatest terrestrial jaws of all time, which is the primary energy acquisition equipment of vertebrates. Complex life’s arms race reached its ultimate expression in dinosaurs, with the fearsome teeth and jaws of the late-Cretaceous’s matched against the spear-and-shield arrangement of . Jurassic dinosaurs such as , with its , would not have been easy meals for predators such as . Turtles are today generally considered to be , and would otherwise seem to be .
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