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Energy Crisis Essays and Term Papers
Rome debased its currency. Rome's was nearly pure silver in 211 BCE when it was first minted; by 269 CE, as the Empire was slowly coming apart, the coin had almost no silver at all in it. Money is only accounting, and debasing it was only a symptom of Rome’s decline, not a cause. Currency debasement is a governmental choice by which it essentially . There are arguments that it can forestall a , but it has always been used as an easy form of taxation that benefits those creating the money. All currencies for all time have been made worthless by those creating the money, as the short-term temptations for debasing a currency are too seductive. Energy is the meaningful measure of health, not money.
The GCs are merely the apex predator in a political-economic jungle filled with predators. If the GCs are , then the jungles are also filled with tyrannosaurs, , and the many docile herbivores that they feast on, and some furtive creatures . Most Americans have no awareness of the issue, but the USA’s federal government has , largely energy-related patents, according to credible sources. The for classifying patented technologies extended to photovoltaics that had efficiencies of greater than 10% or any energy conversion technology that achieved greater than 70-80% efficiency. FE devices are often called “over-unity” because they produce more energy than it takes to run them. Consequently, any over-unity device was subject to being classified. There are many areas like that, where the rationale for suppression is at least plausible, but it is then abused by evil-minded people as they protect the rackets, and the theoretical spirit of the law and the realities of its enforcement are as different as night and day. I saw it , and . Protecting the public is the , which extends to consumer "protection" laws and .
The world today faces an energy crisis
The Oligocene ended with a sudden global warming that continued into the (c. 23 to 5.3 mya). The Miocene was also the first epoch of the (c. 23 to 2.6 mya). Although the Miocene was , England had palm trees again, Antarctic ice sheets melted, and oceans rose. The Miocene is also called the Golden Age of Mammals. Scientists still wrestle with why Earth’s temperature increased in the late Oligocene, but there is no doubt that it did. As the has demonstrated, many dynamics impact Earth’s climate, and positive and negative feedbacks can produce dramatic changes. For the several million year warm period, carbon dioxide levels do not appear to have been elevated. That data has been seized on by as evidence that carbon dioxide levels have nothing to do with Earth’s temperature, but climate scientists not rarely think that way. Carbon dioxide is only one greenhouse gas, and . But as clouds demonstrate, water is notoriously ephemeral, constantly evaporating and precipitating, and some land can get a lot (rainforests), and some can get very little (deserts). Icehouse Earth temperatures are more variable than Greenhouse Earth temperatures, particularly during the transitions between states, and an Icehouse Earth atmosphere contains less water vapor than a Greenhouse Earth atmosphere.
In recent years, Neogene temperatures have been the focus of intensive research. What appears to be the proximate cause of elevated temperatures was a dramatic change in global ocean currents. The final closing of the , the isolation of Antarctica, the creation of , and the opening and closing of land bridges, such as in the Bering Sea and ultimately the land bridge between North and South America, created dramatic changes in ocean currents and global climate. One result was fluctuating . Its production declined beginning about 24 mya, and its weakness lasted until about 14 mya. Consequently, Earth’s oceans were not stratified as they are today, and warm water extended far lower into the oceans than it does today. Also, it reduced the temperature gradient between the equator and poles, which drives global currents: the greater the differential, the more vigorous the currents. It was still an Icehouse Earth, but the “mid-Miocene climatic optimum” was relatively warm. The past three million years are the coldest that Earth has seen since the that ended 260 mya, but this . While the steadily declining carbon dioxide levels of the past 150-100 million years is the ultimate cause of this Icehouse Earth phase, relatively short-term and regional fluctuations have had their proximate causes rooted in other geophysical, geochemical, and celestial dynamics.
Essay on Solar Energy and the Energy Crisis
one. Those Greeks were humble farmers, able to use partially regenerated forests for a self-sufficient lifestyle that could later be seen in the Protestant work ethic and the pioneering spirit. The poet hectored his farmer audience with that could have been uttered by Ben Franklin’s . Athens was established before 1400 BCE and became an important Mycenaean city. It began its resurgence in the late years of Greece’s Dark Age, and between 900 BCE and 300 BCE it became one of the more remarkable experiments in the human journey. By 600 BCE, the reviving civilization had once more eroded the Greek countryside, and , also known as the Tyrant of Athens, , as it was about the only crop that could grow on the badly eroded hills, and farming them did not increase erosion. Greek cities never became very large because the environment could not support large cities. When Greek cities reached about 20,000-to-30,000 people, new colonies were established. That practice led to the Greek colonies that dotted the Mediterranean’s periphery. Also, those colonies founded during the Greek classic era became a hinterland that helped support Athens. There is still debate whether commercial, military, or Malthusian incentives/pressures led to Greek colonization, but with the obvious environmental degradation of Greece, I lean toward Malthusian dynamics being the impetus, and the other factors were making the best of the situation. People rarely leave their homelands if they do not have to.
Many reasons were proffered to explain the Minoan decline and collapse, including the . What is increasingly cited as the reason for the Minoan decline (and was probably the ultimate reason for its collapse), was that Minoans , primarily via deforestation. Minoans, just as with many other collapsed civilizations, exceeded their land's carrying capacity. For organisms, carrying capacity always meant food and the ability to reproduce, but for civilizations, it also meant the energy needed to run the civilization’s moving parts, including transportation and the energy used to build structures and goods. If we revisit the “” that life faces, whether to use energy to fuel biological processes or build biological structures, civilizations faced the same choice. Humans commandeered the energy that a tree invested in its growth, and there were two basic ways to use it: liberate the energy in the structure by burning it, or use that structure for building human-usable tools or structures, which included buildings and ships. , as did pottery-making and fireplaces and furnaces to heat buildings. Minoans also built a tremendous fleet of ships for trade and military dominance. When rebuilding Minoan palaces, Crete’s inhabitants used wood exuberantly, but by 1500 BCE, the use of wood in palaces declined precipitously, and when Mycenaean Greece annexed Crete, the forests were gone and Greeks used Crete for pasturing their sheep.
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BA English Essay (Energy Crisis of Pakistan) - BACE World
A mass extinction began when humans left Africa and with ancestors of , but it accelerated when that founder group of behaviorally modern humans . They quickly drove the , as well as the and . Once the inhabitable continents were filled with that founder group’s descendants, , humans independently domesticated plants and animals. The mass extinction continued with the Domestication Revolution, but in less spectacular fashion, usually via habitat destruction. The increasing density of human populations became the primary factor in driving other species to extinction, which were often local extinctions. Ancient and particularly drove north-African megafauna to extinction, but there were few other notable mass extinctions until . When they did, the greatest proportional demographic catastrophes since the extinction of all other human species began. Those same three continents earlier robbed of their megafauna were quickly shorn of their human populations, who were and and in the Americas. In the midst of that unprecedented disaster for , . Although industrialization raised the human standard of living as never before, as the energy of hydrocarbon fuels was exploited on a large scale for the first time, it also enabled greater environmental devastation. Humanity has been turning forests into deserts since the first civilizations (, , , , , , , , , ), and the only reason it has not gotten worse during the industrial era, at least in industrialized, nations, is because hydrocarbons instead of wood were burned. The extinction of the , in the midst of , were indicative of the vast damage that industrialized peoples could inflict on Earth’s ecosystems. Industrialization also accelerated Europe’s conquest of the world. It conquered and subjugated and peoples, reducing them to effective slavery and further devastating the ecosystems.
Then and Now Introduction The world today faces an energy crisis
Humans are the large-brained, allegedly sentient species that dominates Earth, and humans have greatly altered evolutionary processes, down to “engineering” the DNA of organisms. We have a “nature” and multi-billion year heritage, as any organism does. How much have we changed ours, and how much do our natures really matter? Can we consciously change our natures or overcome them? The nature/nurture debate is quite old, and as the domestication of plants and animals has demonstrated, or the , nurture can nature by selective breeding at the least. The , as an experiment, and the changes were dramatic. There is plenty about humanity that is nature at work, such as a child's acquisition of language or the urge to procreate (and the related ). Also, a great deal is socially learned. At least half of the variance in human traits such as intelligence and personality has been attributed to genetics, and nearly all the rest is socialization by the peer group (I believe that the , and the guiding role, but that is not scientifically demonstrable, at least today). But few of those scientific findings regarding human nature, if any of them, are relevant to why imperial "entertainment" is no longer . The improvement in standard of living due to increased energy consumption has precipitated many changes in what was once considered human "nature," such as . In a , would the dominant ideologies exalt and ?
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