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IELTS Writing: Sample IELTS Essay Topics 2 | Good Luck …
Islamic culture enjoyed humanity’s highest standard of living in about 1200, and although Europe was rising in that period, it was also seen as backward compared to the refined cultures of the Eastern Roman Empire (which never lost the ancient Greek teachings) and Islamic lands. But late Medieval Warm Period droughts may have unleashed a scourge that would be unsurpassed in ferocious destruction until the Nazis in the 20th century: the Mongol invasions initiated by . Islam never fully recovered from the Mongol invasions. , and Baghdad was Islam’s leading city before its and wholesale slaughter of its residents. Places such as China, Russia, and Hungary lost up to half of their populations. A recent study suggested that the tens of millions of deaths at the Mongols' hands may have initiated reforestation that absorbed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to such an extent that it helped end the Medieval Warm Period. The impact was only about 1 PPM, and the coming Little Ice Age has , including the Western Hemisphere’s depopulation and reforestation due to the Spanish invasions of the 1500s.
This essay’s purpose, regarding the human journey’s epochal phases, is to show how humans achieved each Epochal Event, which was always about exploiting a new energy source, and how each event transformed the human journey. Although the civilizations of India and Southeast Asia had unique qualities and achievements, and the Buddhist religion has a great deal to commend (founded, as Christianity was, in the name of another “rebel,”) as well as other world religions, the primary preoccupation of all peoples for all time before the Industrial Revolution was avoiding starvation. Industrialized peoples seem to have partly forgotten this motivation.
Seventh Grade Practice Reading Test - Pearson Longman
In 508 BCE, Athens entered its classical period, which lasted for nearly two centuries. In those two centuries, so much was invented by Greek philosophers and proto-scientists that it has been studied by scholars for thousands of years. One provocative question that scholars have posed is why the Industrial Revolution did not begin with the Greeks. The answer seems to be along the lines of Classic Greeks not having the social organization or sufficient history of technological innovation before wars and environmental destruction ended the Greek experiment. The achievements of Greece over the millennium of their intellectual fecundity are far too many to explore in this essay, but briefly, the Greeks invented: , , , the , a monetized economy, thought, such as , while developing other branches to unprecedented sophistication, and , which included the idea that . Long after the Classic Greek period was over, Hellenic intellectuals and inventors kept making innovations that had major impacts on later civilizations, such as Heron of Alexandria (or some other Greeks) inventing the and .
Athens began a war with the Spartan-led Peloponnesian peoples that lasted from 431 BCE to 404 BCE. The war was largely another naval one, and fighting over forest access was the prominent dynamic; Spartans invaded and leveled its trees, turning it into a barren wasteland. In the aftermath of Attica’s destruction, a disease broke out and accompanied Attica’s refugees to an increasingly overcrowded Athens and initiated one of the world’s first recorded epidemics, today called the . Historians and scientists have as to the disease’s identity.
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Those basics never really changed, and environmental destruction accompanied all civilizations, as razing forests and growing crops could never really be sustainable and certainly could not form the foundation for economically abundant societies. Economic scarcity, which is always rooted in energy scarcity, was as deeply ingrained into all ideologies as thoroughly as those early religions that to reinforce group cohesion. Economic scarcity was and is so pervasive that it is an of of today’s . As with all assumptions, scarcity has become a barely visible framework to adherents of dominant ideologies. If energy were abundant, scarcity-based realities and ideologies would quickly become obsolete, as well as many societal features that are scarcity’s side-effects, such as , , , , and .
Few dates before 1 CE will be used beyond this point in this essay, so for the remainder of this essay, unless "BCE" is applied to them, all dates will be CE dates, with “CE” dropped from them.
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Chipko Movement in India (Useful Notes)
In the Fertile Crescent today, the ruins of hundreds of early cities are in their self-made deserts, usually buried under the silt of the erosion of exposed forest soils. As the Mediterranean Sea’s periphery became civilized, the same pattern was repeated; forests became semi-deserts and early cities were buried under silt. Before the rise of civilization, a forest ran from Morocco to Afghanistan, and only about 10% of the forest that still existed as late as 2000 BCE still remains. Everyplace that civilization exists today has been dramatically deforested. Humanity has since agriculture began. The only partial exceptions are places such as Japan, but they regenerated their forests by importing wood from foreign forests. North America and Asia have been supplying Japan with wood for generations. As civilizations wiped themselves out with their rapaciousness, some people were aware enough to lament what was happening, but they were a small minority. Usually lost in the anthropocentric view was the awesome devastation inflicted on other life forms. was only a prelude. Razing a forest to burn the wood and raise crops destroyed an entire ecosystem for short-term human benefit and left behind a lifeless desert when the last crops were wrenched from depleted soils. In the final accounting, the damage meted out to Earth’s other species, not other humans, may be humanity’s greatest crime. Humanity is the greatest destructive force on Earth since the , and our great task of devastating Earth and her denizens may be .
Essay on Biodiversity Conservation
When humans began to raze forests and use the resultant soils to raise crops, they were working their way down through the food chain, no longer harvesting ecosystem detritus but destroying entire ecosystems literally at their roots for short-term human benefit. That practice eventually turned forest ecosystems into deserts. As this essay will survey, that was a rampant problem in all early civilizations. Eventually, humans learned to reach even further back into the ecological horizon as they began burning energy stores that were hundreds of millions of years old; was first and second. They were burned a million times as fast as they were created. In all instances, humans were releasing sunlight energy that had been captured and stored by organisms. In the 20th century, when humans began using nuclear fission, they were going even further back in time and harvesting energy stored via billions of years ago. With each new energy source, humans were harvesting older, more concentrated energy sources, which released far more energy than the previously used source. In each instance, humans plundered the energy source to exhaustion. Humans have not lived in “harmony” with nature since they learned to control fire.
Factory Farming Is Destroying Our Environment – …
The USA finished off humanity’s greatest war by dropping history’s most destructive weapons on cities, and then . In the wake of dropping nuclear weapons on women and children, the USA had unprecedented global hegemony, controlled both sides of both major oceans, and possessed half of the world’s wealth and industrial capacity. Then began the , which was an era of economic prosperity never seen before or since, and I had the good fortune to be born in the midst of it. Above all else, it was an economic event born of cheap energy and has been called the Golden Age of American Capitalism. When energy ceased being cheap in the 1970s, the boom ended and the long decline set in, not just for the USA, but the world in general, which is the next chapter's subject.
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